# Streams

# Simple Summary

Streams provide a way of creating complex mutable data structures using directed acyclic graphs made from objects.

# Problem Statement

While objects on their own are useful for creating permanent content-addressable data structures, there are very few applications where data never get updated. This is where streams come in, they allow developers to create complex applications by applying event driven and event sourcing patterns using graphs of individually immutable objects.

# Proposal

Objects in a stream form a directed acyclic graph (DAG) by allowing each of the objects to reference others it depends on or knows of. This graph can then be serialized into a linear series of objects that can be replayed consistently by everyone that has the same representation of the graph.

Streams are identified by the cid of their root object. This means that even though each of their objects is content-addressable; the stream as a whole is not, as its root cid (and thus identifier) does not change when more objects are added to the graph.

The benefit of this is that there is no need to find a way to reference the stream as it changes. The downside is that you do not really know if you have actually received the whole stream and whether peers are not holding back on you.


# Structures

# Root Object

  "@type:s": "stream:nimona.io/kv"

# Child Object

  "@type:s": "<any-type>",
  "@metadata:m": {
    "root:r": "<stream-root-cid>",
    "parents:m": {
      "*:as": ["<last-known-leaf-cids>"],

# Access control policy

Note: Work in progress.

Policy parameters:

  • type required. [signature].
  • subjects optional (public key).
  • actions optional [read, append].
  • resources optional (only used for stream policies).
  • effect required [allow, deny].

# Evaluation

A request is a combination of a subject, resource, and action.

A request matches a policy if each of the policy's parameters (subjects, resources, actions) are either empty or explicitly match the equivalent parameter of the request being evaluated.

In order to check whether the given request is allowed or not we evaluate each policy against the request using the following rules.

  1. If there are no policies the action is allowed.

Else, For each policy:

  1. If the request doesn't match the policy we move on to the next policy.
  2. We count how many parameters were explicitly matched and if the previous match had the same or more parameters matched, we consider the policy's effect as the latest evaluation result.
  3. When all policies have been evaluated the latest result is used.

# Policy example table 1

0 - allow s* r* a* * * * allow allow allow allow
1 - deny s* r* a1 * * a1 deny allow deny allow
2 - deny s0 r* a* s0 * * deny deny deny allow
3 - allow s0 r* a2 s0 * a2 deny allow deny allow
4 - allow s0 r0 a1 s0 r0 a1 allow allow deny allow
5 - deny s* r0 a2 * r0 a2 allow deny deny deny
6 - deny s* r* a* * * * allow deny deny deny

# Policy example table 2

0 - allow s1 r0 a1 s1 r0 a1 allow allow allow allow
1 - deny s* r* a* * * * deny deny allow deny
2 - allow s* r* a* * * * allow allow allow allow
3 - deny s0 r* a* s0 * * deny deny allow allow
4 - deny s* r0 a* * r0 * deny deny allow deny
5 - deny s* r0 a2 * r0 a2 deny deny allow deny
6 - allow s* r* a2 * * a2 deny deny allow deny
7 - allow s0 r0 a* s0 r0 * allow allow allow deny

# Example

  "@type:s": "stream:conversation",
  "@metadata:m": {
    "owner:s": "bah0",
    "policies:am": [{
      // allow everyone to read the whole stream
      "@type:s": "signature",
      "actions:as": ["read"],
      "effect:s": "allow",
    }, {
      // allow a couple of keys to send messages
      "@type:s": "signature",
      "subjects:as": ["bah1", "bah2", "bah3"],
      "actions:as": ["append"],
      "resources:as": ["conversation.MessageAdded"],
      "effect:s": "allow",
    }, {
      // allow owner to modify conversation topic
      "@type:s": "signature",
      "subjects:as": ["bah0"],
      "actions:as": ["append"],
      "resources:as": ["conversation.TopicUpdated"],
      "effect:s": "allow",

# Hypothetical roots

As mentioned before, streams are identified by the CID of their root object. In order for a peer to find the providers of a stream and get its objects, it must at the very least know its identifier. This is usually not an issue as most times a peer will learn about the existence of a stream from somewhere before deciding to request it. There are some cases though where that might not be the case, especially when looking for something that might be considered relatively "well known".

An example of this would be the profile stream of an identity. Let's say we are looking at a blog post that a single author. Unless the blog post somehow contains a link to the author's profile stream, there is no other way to easily find the stream's identifier.

This is where hypothetical roots come in.

A hypothetical root is an object that identifies a stream and can be assumed exists given the type of stream and the author that would have created it. This allows peers to find streams unique to an identity without having to somehow learn of their existence.

Since the hypothetical root does not contain a policy, the stream starts off as publicly accessible but writable only by the author. The author can subsequently decide to restrict the rest of the stream by using a more strict policy.

Let's go back to our original example of profile streams.

Assuming that peer a11 wants the profile stream for the identity f00, all it has to do is construct the hypothetical root, calculate its CID, and find providers for it on the network.

  "@type:s": "nimona.io/profile.Created",
  "author:s": "f00"

The CID of this object is oh1.9KQhQ4UGaQPEyUDAAPDmVJCoHnGtJY7Aun4coFATXCYK and the peer can now lookup the providers for this object, and sync the remaining stream.

The NDL for defining hypothetical roots is as follows. Additional objects can be defined in the stream as needed, but the hypothetical root object itself cannot have additional properties.

stream nimona.io/profile {
    hypothetical root object Created { }
    signed object NameUpdated {
        nameFirst string
        nameLast string
        dependsOn repeated relationship

# Synchronization

Note: Work in progress.

    signed object nimona.io/stream.StreamRequest {
        nonce string
        leaves repeated nimona.io/object.CID
    signed object nimona.io/stream.StreamResponse {
        nonce string
        children repeated nimona.io/object.CID
    signed object nimona.io/stream.Announcement {
        nonce string
        leaves repeated nimona.io/object.CID

# Subscriptions

Peers can "subscribe" to stream updates by creating and sending subscriptions to other peers. A subscription can be used to subscribe on updates to one or more streams using the streams' root CID and must also specify an expiration time for the subscription.

When a peer receives or creates an update for a stream, they will go through the subscriptions they have received, and notify the relevant peers about the new updates. If the subscriber does not have have access to the stream, no notification will be sent.

signed object nimona.io/stream.Subscription {
    rootCIDs nimona.io/object.CID
    expiry nimona.io/object.DateTime

Subscriptions can also be added as stream events. This allows identities and peers that have write access to a stream to denote their interest in receiving updates about that stream. In this case rootCIDs should be empty and the expiry is optional.

# References